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Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is a fundamental variable affecting carbon uptake by ecosystems, not only the total amount but also its spectral distribution and its partitioning between direct and diffuse components. These aspects of PAR are strongly affected by clouds and aerosols.    ... More



The terrestrial vegetation and ecological systems play important roles in global change and climate variations. An accurate depiction of evapotranspiration (ET) and photosynthesis processes is essential in the understanding of the response and influence of the vegetation system to water, energy, and carbon cycles of the climate.    ... More



Clouds remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in global climate change research. The impact of greenhouse warming on cloud amount through climate feedback can make significant changes in the global radiative energy balance. Knowledge of cloud properties and their spatial and temporal variation is crucial to advance understanding of global climate change.  ... More


Among all recognized climate forcing mechanisms, aerosol indirect effects are currently the greatest source of uncertainty in model forecasts of climate change. In recent years vigorous research has ensued focusing on key unanswered questions that persist due to limited laboratory and field observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. ... More


A full vector radiative transfer code for plane-parallel atmosphere is developed by using the successive order of scattering method. An exponent-linear assumption is used in the vertical integration, and fast analytical expansion of Fourier decomposing is introduced into the code.  ... More



We have developed two instruments for solar radiation as well as for remote sensing aerosols and clouds. ... More